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Question 1

A Type II error happens when the null hypothesis regarded as true but is false. For instance, statistical analyses may show no significant difference between groups, but in realism the groups are dissimilar. As such, there exists a substantial risk of a Type II error, in the case when the level of significance is 0.01 in comparison to 0.05. Nonetheless, Type II errors often result from flaws in the research methods. As such, in nursing many studies conducted with small samples and with instruments that measure precisely under study. Consequently, in the numerous nursing situations, multiple variables interact to cause differenced within the population. In the case when a few of the interacting variables undergoes examination, small dissimilarities may be overlooked, leading to the false conclusion that there exist no difference between the samples. As such, the risk of a Type II error elevated in nursing studies.

In addition to psychological measures, the nurse researchers have been working towards the integration of biological measures in to their research so as to gain a comprehensive understanding of the client (Nancy, 2011). Nonetheless, the fluctuation as well as interactive nature of biological systems makes biological measurement a paramount challenge to the researchers. As such, to obtain valid and objective biological measures results, it is paramount to ensure that levels of accuracy and precision are comparable to validity and reliability.

Certainly, to reduce the measurement errors, the researchers must comprehend the potential problems linked to measuring living organisms, as well as the characteristics of biochemical devices employed. As such, the ultimate goal is to conduct biological measurement in a highly accurate and precise manner. As such, the significance of sufficiently describing precision as well as accuracy of the biological measurement in nursing studies those need more emphasize in order to augment the research rigor (Nancy, 2011).

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Question 2

Validity is the traditional criteria for validity find their origin in a positivist tradition, and to an amount, positivism defined by a systematic theory of validity. As such, within the positivist terminology, validity was the result as well as the culmination of other empirical conceptions; evidence, universal, law, objectivity, actuality, truth, deduction facts, reason, as well as mathematical data. Brown presents the following explanation of validity in nursing practice. Thus, validity determines whether the values of research that which it intended to measure. As such, does the research instrument permit the researcher to find the intended research study? Moreover, researcher determines the validity by inquiring a series of the questionnaire, and will often look for answers to the research study. On the other hand, validity may be defined as construct validity. Thus, the construct validity is the initial concept that decides which data is to be collected and the criteria of collection (Brown, 1986).

Consequently, reliability is the extent to which result are consistent over time as well as an accurate representation of the total population under study, presented as reliability. If the results of the study can be replicated under similar criteria, then the research instruments is reliable. Embodied in this citation is the notion of reliability of results or observation. Tentatively, Shajonia identifies the three types of reliability referred to in the nursing study that relates to: the degree of measurement, given repeatedly, remains the same; stability of the measurement over time; the similarity of measurement within a given frame. Arguably, consistency with which questionnaire items presents scores remain comparatively the same can be determined through the test related criteria at two dissimilar times. As such, this attribute of the instrument is stability. Thus in the case when dealing with stable measures, the results should thus be the same. Nonetheless, a high stability degree shows a high degree of reliability; thus the result can be repetitive (Nancy, 2011).

Question 3

The levels of probability, as well as, significance based on the normal curve reveals the distribution of values for a single population. As such, 95.5 % of the values are within 2 standard deviation of the mean, ranging from negative to positive two, and standard deviations. There exist is approximately a 95 % probability that a given measured value (e.g the mean of a group) would fall contained by tails of the normal curve (the intense ends of the normal curve, below -2(exactly -1.96) standard deviation (2.5 %) or above +2 (precisely +1.96) standard deviation 2.5 %. As such, in the case when the groups present difference and that they arise from the same group (not considerably dissimilar), it expected that the value of each group to reduce within the 95 % range of values on the normal curve. If the groups are from dissimilar population, individuals would expect one of the group values to exceed the 95 % range of values. Tentatively, a statistical analysis test that demonstrate a significant difference (the value of one group considered belonging to dissimilar population) nonetheless, in 5 % of statistical test, the value of one of the groups can be anticipated being in the 95 % range of values.

On the other hand, a statistical analysis performed in the determination of the difference between or among various groups, employing 0.05 level of significance would test the expectation.

Question 4

Statistical analyses, as well as procedures, used in the determination of the numerical data gathered in a specified study. As such, in critically evaluating a study, it is essential to comprehend the process used by the researchers used in performing the data analyses. As such, the quantitative data analysis process consist of various stages ; the preparation of the data analyses; description of the sample; testing the reliability of the measurement method; conduction of exploratory data analyses; conduction of confirmatory analysis guided by hypothesis as well as conducting postdoc analysis.

During the statistical analyses, the explanatory analysis is paramount in the examination of all the data. As such, it enables the researcher to be more familiar with the nature of the data on variables that are essential in the answering of the research question. As such, the statistical analysis provides actual figures that would assist in conclusion of the research question.

Undoubtedly, the outliers form the paramount basis in the study. As such, the outliers are subjects in the data that have extreme values that seem unlike the rest of the sample. It forms the most valuable insight from a study, obtained through careful examination of the outliers (Tukey, 1977).

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Certainly, in numerous studies relationships existing among the variables, as well as, differences between the groups explored by the employment of statistical procedures. The relationships as well as variables are essential in conducting the study and answering of the research question. As such, statistical analyses designed for the purpose of making the inferences employed. Additionally, a statistical analysis is proficient in establishing the probability theory that assist on explanation of the extent of relationships between the variable. Moreover, it will assist the researchers into understanding the probability that an outcome will result through a nursing involvement. Nonetheless, the researches may want to be aware of the probability that subjects in the experimental groups are members of the same larger population from where the comparison groups observed.

Question 5

A systematic review forms a structure, an all-inclusive synthesis of the qualitative studies in a healthcare industry in the determination of the proficient evidence present for expert clinicians to employ in promoting EBP. As such, the systematic reviews happen to synthesis evidence in the research from various high superiority quantitative studies having similar strategies, like randomized clinical trial (RCT)(Brown, 1986).Tentatively, systematic reviews conducted by a team of expertise in offering the best evidence for research for evidence based guidelines. As such, guideline presented in order to help, the researches in decisively evaluating the systematic reviews, as well as the helpfulness of the research evidence for your practice.

On the other hand, the critical evaluation of a systematic review also assist in the inclusion of an assessment of how the updated the review is. As such, the evaluation is proficient in the case where updates reviews present the most updated evaluation. Arguably, it arises the question as to how fats do the systematic reviews go out of date? Brown, as well as Sampson amongst other researchers, investigated this question. The researcher conducted a survival analysis of 100 quantitative systematic reviews published from 1995 to 2005. This happened through to estimate the average time alteration in evidence that is sufficiently paramount to warrant updating systematic reviews) (Brown, 1986).Thus, they realized the average time before a systematic review signaled a necessity for updating of the systematic reviews every two years. As such, updating the systematic reviews, presents better results as well as valid conclusion in the research evidence practice. Nonetheless, the systematic reviews help in maintaining quality of the research as the resources updated frequently. Additionally, the expertize can conduct their research with ease and precisions.

Question 6

The nurses in all the fields, as well as fields of practice, ought to have experience in critically appraising both quantitative as well as qualitative studies. Despite the fact that the two qualitative studies need a divergent approach ion critically appraising the study, a quantitative appraisal in both cases is paramount. As such, the individual involved in practice will be able to determine the rigor with which the criteria applied. As such, the nurse or individual undertaking nursing practices applied with the critical appraisals of the qualitative study skills. As such, the nurse or practicing individual will focus on the integrity of the design as well as the methods affecting the credibility of the finding. Additionally, the individual will be capable to realize the usefulness in the clinical practice .Tentatively, Burns asserts that the standards for rigorous qualitative research (Brown, 1986).

With retrospect to DR. Margarete Sandelowski, the individuals' in the nursing practice will be able to develop their analysis technique through the examination of all the qualitative studies. Additionally the adaptation of the techniques would be essential in clinical practices.

The nurses will not only have experience in critically appraising the qualitative and quantitative study but understand the key factor essential in the various study (Brown, 1986).

Question 7

Nursing is a multi dimensional profession. As such, nursing is the protection, promotion as well as optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through treatment and diagnosis. The practices permit the nurses to work individually as well as members of the health-care team, functioning collaboratively and in consultation with other healthcare professionals (Bond, 1987).

The john Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Model depicts three fundamental keystones that form the basis for professional nursing. Thus, the keystones are practice, research as well as education. Therefore, nursing practice is the means by which a patient receives nursing care. Tentatively, it forms an integral part of many healthcare organizations. Education forms the basis of reflection on the acquisition of the nursing knowledge as well as skills necessary in becoming proficient clinician as well as to maintain competency. On the other hand, research offers innovative knowledge of the profession and enables the development of practices based on scientific confirmation.

At the core of the model exist evidence. The core comprises of sources of evidence that contribute the foundation for decision making regarding nursing practice, research and education. Research finding is the strongest mode of evidence on which decisions regarding practice should be made. However, research answers question under conditions, and the outcome may not be readily transferable to another clinical setting.

Additionally, the model depicts as an open system that comprises of interrelated components. Thus, as an open system, the outputs from the model depend on internal and external factors. External factor comprises accreditation bodies, quality measures, standards and regulation. Accreditation needs an organization to achieve and maintain high standards of quality and practice. Legislative and regulatory bodies enact the regulation and the laws designed in the protection of public and promotion access to health care services. Failure to follow the laws and regulation may have an adverse effect on any organization financial factors.

Question 8

EBP is an objective for the nursing profession as well, as all the nursing practice. As such, the current nursing intervention are evidence based, thus supporting by research knowledge obtained from various qualitative studies. Tentatively, the current research projects the slowness in changes in practice, when employing the readily use research based intervention (Melnyk et al, 2010). As such, there exist various barriers to as well as benefits that facilitate the research of the evidence.

Firstly, the research evidence generated based on the population data and its application made to the various patients. As such, there exist problems in the translations of the basic research knowledge formed in the laboratory with animals to human beings. As a result, more work required in facilitating the research evidence in the handling the families as well as parents. Tentatively, it prompted the development of translational research that facilitates the application of research knowledge into practice setting.

Additionally, the healthcare agencies do not present the recourses in support for the EBP implementation. This include; restricting research journals, limiting the time for research based practice, limiting RNS authority, Offering minimal funds and offering few rewards for RNS delivering the evidence based care to families, as well as the patients. Additionally, some nurses are barriers to EBP; thus they do not have background research and do not value implementation of evidence - based research. Therefore, many involve in changing the policies or procedure that they have used in long periods (Bond, 1987). Thus, need should center on focusing on EBP by both the nurses as well as administrators.

EBP presents various outcomes for patients, healthcare agencies as well as patients as they present improved outcomes. As such, the most proficient research evidence made in developing strong evidence based guidelines for the practice. Undoubtedly, these guidelines offer the best treatment plans for the patient care in selected areas in the promotion of quality health outcomes. Thus, the nurses as well as other healthcare providers have access to the evidence that assists them in making informed decisions. Undoubtedly, the guidelines communicated by the publications as well as presentations accessible on online sources (Brown, 1986).

Question 9

Despite the fact that most of the clinical research studies could be considered outcome research, the term has come to be linked with the criteria in which organization of nursing impact the nursing, system and patients. Additionally, it is the research based on traditional scientific criteria that generates numerical data and frequently seeks to establish a causal relationship between the variables (Bond, 1987).

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Outcome research is the research that centers on measurable outcomes of interventions with specific patient population. Thus, the augmented interest in the nursing studies, links with the high cost of health care. Healthcare policy makers center on the provide care as being effective. On the other hand, consumers want to know whether services that they purchase will improve their health. Tentatively, the outcomes become immensely crucial.

Outcome research centers on a dissimilar category since the design type, methods, sampling procedure used may be dissimilar from the traditional quantitative methods. For instance rather than exercising tight control over the sample, the objective might be deliberately included in a wide range of patients with different levels of health status (Bond, 1987).

On the other hand, nurse research conducts both qualitative as well as quantitative studies. By definition, quantitative research concerns with objectivity, firm control over the research situation and the ability to generalize findings. In the past, the researchers have primarily conducted quantitative research. The research traditionally practised by numerous other disciplines.

For instance, consider patients experiencing chronic pain, thus necessitates the study for the pains. Quantitative research would be proficient with determining the level of pain that the people experience. Nonetheless, the traditional quantitative research determines the capacity of the variable under research. Therefore, research of all types should center to investigate as well as contribute to the body of knowledge that assists in shaping and guiding the profession. As such, nurses should employ the best research evidence obtainable.

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