Psychology of Gender essay

The theme of gender differences psychobiology has become an urgent question for the nowadays social and economical life due to the fact of the emancipation rapid popularisation in the world leading societies. That is why the awareness in gender differenced provides the successful diplomat, businessman, psychologists etc with an additional competitive advantage in winning in communication and as a result - being successful.

Te additional areas of the gender gap theme are additionally discussed in the following areas of human activities: sports, advertising, politics, employment, education etc. Some scholars interrelate this theme with the gender discrimination issues.

In the scopes of this research paper the Invisible Glass Ceiling and its effect of the working place would be discussed in the light of race and gender issues. (Which are considered to be interrelated notions in US. )

The hypothesis of the research is the following: the race and gender issues make a negative impact on the career development of the individuals, who belong to the minority group.

In order t develop the theme of influence of the invisible glass ceiling to the working place, it is important to rely to the background of this notion. According to the economical point of view, the glass ceiling is the 'unseen, yet unbreachable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements.

That is why the next issue to be outlined in this research paper is the human refights violation - race and gender problems.

In order to develop the topic, considering the race and gender differences and interrelation between these two notions, it is important to outline the background of each notion. Usually, race is considered as the classification of humans due to the factors of appearance, which are based on heritable phenotypical characteristics or geographic ancestry. In nowadays social science, gender is considered as the social sex - behaviour of individual in some social conditions. Also, this notion is applied in the case of the sexual inequality discussion.

Racism is the complicated projection of the ethnic conflict, which covers all areas of human activities and creates the preconditions for total discrimination of the minorities by other representatives of the society. Scholars outline the ethnic conflict/problem/war as the conflict, which occurs between the ethnic groups and is mainly based on the ethnic nationalism issues. The main interest to the ethnic conflicts is caused by their wide popularity after the Cold War and also because they lead to such outcomes as genocide or other types of war crimes.

According to the point of view, developed by Evelyn Nakano Glenn, it is possible to say that race and gender are interrelated notions and at the same time, additional attention in the social life development has been paid to the gender issuers. Also, it is important to make an emphasis that initially gender has been discussed in the light of white women and to the race in the light of black men. So it is evident that women of colour have not been taken in consideration.

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While investigating the problem of gender, author has made an emphasis that here is a significant three-scale difference between women in colour and white women: while females are encapsulated in the domestic sphere, economic subordination and also in the class, which they belong to and women of colour are not. From the other hand, there is an integrating movement in the nowadays social life - feminism, where all these three factors are investigated in the light of both white women and women of colour and the main aim of the movement is reaching of female independence, universal rights, applied both for men and women and also the possibility of being the active participant of the social life. Evelyn Nakano Glenn makes an emphasis the there are two scientific approaches towards gender. Some scholars consider this notion in the light of sex-gender system - biological sexuality is transformed in to the socially significant gender and other think that it is possible to consider gender as the social status.

While discussing the problem of racism, it is possible to say that the racial discrimination in many well-developed countries is presented in all spheres of human life and activities: education, job searching, health care, cultural, lending and even in occupying some positions in governmental structures and for sure there is a negative impact of the race factor on the working place. It makes a negative impact not only on the social life, but there are also different restrictions for those representatives of minority, who are willing to participate in economical life of the country and to become being the entrepreneurs.

Investigation of the racism problems is carried out and different experiences, concerning that issue are outlined in order to discuss some barriers and obstacles. Racism awareness, in turn, is tending to achieving understanding of the process and operation of racism and finally the antiracism information is investigated in order to achieve the legal compliance, enhance social justice and finally to raisin specific performance levels.

Also, it is important to make an emphasis that the cross-cultural interrelation in the multinational social group should take in consideration all aspects of the human behaviour and should remind the experience of the previous generations in the racism, gender issues and other types of discrimination and their outcomes.

The last important issue, which has been investigated by Evelyn Nakano Glenn is that globalization process itself has made a great contribution into the gender and race issues development. As an example, in many well-developed countries there is a lack of labour force and this demand id fulfilled by the immigrants from the third-world countries, and there is such notion as 'international transference of mothering', which means that women from poor countries come to well-developed countries in order to be employed as nannies and teachers for treating and educating children of the local middle- class population. Such situation has improved the attitude towards racial issue but at the same time, the gender aspect of these people is not improved, because their social status has not been changed. That is why it is possible to make a conclusion that the factor of invisible glass ceiling takes its place in this type of situations and makes the negative impact on the situation development.

As one more scientific approach towards gender and race issues, it is important to discuss, is the 'Unruly Immigrants' by Monisha Das Gupta. That is why the social constructionist approach towards understanding of rights, activism and transnational South Asian policies in the United States would be outlined.

Generally, social constructs are understood as the by-products of countless human choices rather than laws resulting from divine will or nature (Burr, 1995). Author has made an emphasis on the urgency of documenting of the South Asian contributions to movements for social transformation. One of the main reasons for that was that the women of colour have not been provided even with an opportunity of participation in the scientific research processes (their knowledge and skills in this case have not been taken in consideration). In Unruly Immigrants author has outlined theethnographic account of the challenge, which has been made by radical recent immigrants to the neo-liberal political order in North America. Author considers that due to the globalization processes, the new political subjects have been created in US and these subjects need to be recognized and provided with the rights of social protection, right to safety, "good work", and freedom of movement across borders. In other words there is a demand of transnational migrant rights.

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Also, it is important to make an emphasis that according to the authors' point of view, the gender, race and sexuality have been denaturalized during the last three decades and that has leaded to the position that we can see them as principles that organize power relations in society. Author considers that there is a need of properly-developed migrant bill of rights because current one is the thrust of the immigrants' needs, but not wishful variant for their life and safety protection.

Author has considered seven organizations, which are responsible for the immigrants' rights support: three women's groups, which are working on domestic violence (Sakhi, Manavi, and South Asian Women for Action), two queer groups (Masala and South Asian Lesbian and Gay Association), and a male and a female labour group (New York Taxi Workers' Alliance and Andolan). All these organizations have well-defined missions, goals, and values, but at the same time, author considers that they respond to such issues as isolation, privations, and struggles of the non-professional immigrants and that is why the non-citizens - who live and work as domestics, taxi drivers, or who are rejected by the current society are integrated with a common need for protection from the neo-liberal immigration, labour and familial regimes which control them across nation-spaces.

Finally, it is important to make an emphasis that Das Gupta persuades the readers that documentation of struggles is the key success factor for challenging contemporary inequities in the social life, but not for arguing for a transnational complex of rights over the citizenship rights. It is possible to say that Das Gupta would subscribe to a social constructionist approach towards understanding 'rights, activism and transnational south Asian politics in the United States' because the main emphasis in the social constructivism is made on importance of culture and context in understanding of the social life and in constructing knowledge based on this understanding.

Finally, such notions as race and gender and their investigation is an urgent question for the current society because there are still many cases when people are not provided with an opportunity to achieve the desired aims because of their sex or race and such issue causes cross-cultural conflicts and leads to the social instability.

That is why, while taking in consideration all the above listed factors, it is important to pay additional attention to the in-group thinking in order to reach the consensus in all the disputable questions, concerning the professional activity of each member of the team because the cross cultural conflicts may lead to the irreversible processes in the social life and as a result- may have the negative outcomes.

To conclude it is important to pay additional attention to the fact that evaluation of the individual due to ones' belonging to the minority group or due to ones' gender and racial characteristics cannot be considered as an ethical one and as an economically effective approach towards human resource management.

In order to be successful, companies should apply the approach which implies the evaluation of the real achievements, skills and abilities if the individual while making the decision concerning ones' career development. It is important to make an emphasis that the cross-cultural interrelation in the multinational social group should take in account all aspects of the human behaviour and should remind the experience of the previous generations in the racism, gender issues and other types of discrimination and their outcomes.

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